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APA, MLA, Chicago/Turbian, AMA - Citation Styles: Get Started

This resource guide was designed to provide you with assistance in citing your sources when writing an academic paper. Popular citation styles are explained with examples.


This research guide was designed to provide you with assistance in citing your sources when writing an academic paper.

What Are Citations?

A citation is a way of giving credit to individuals for their creative and intellectual works that you utilized to support your research. It can also be used to locate particular sources and combat plagiarism. Typically, a citation can include the author's name, date, location of the publishing company, journal title, or DOI (Digital Object Identifier).

Citing your sources is crucial in your academic career. Please see the Shenandoah University's Academic Integrity Policies page for in-depth information.

What Are Citation Styles?

A citation style dictates which information about a source is included, as well as how it is arranged, punctuated, and formatted.

In each tab of this guide, you will find more information about a particular citation style, along with example citations and links to citation guides.

How Do I Choose a Citation Style?

Please consult with your professor to determine what style is required in your specific course.

Different academic disciplines and professions prefer different styles. For example:

  • APA (American Psychological Association) is used by Education and Psychology, among others
  • MLA (Modern Language Association) style is used by the Humanities
  • Chicago/Turabian style is generally used by Business, History, and the Fine Arts

Related Guides

Writing Center

The Writing Center seeks to develop more able student writers through one-to-one instruction in pre-writing, drafting, revising, and editing. The conferences between students and the Writing Center staff, either face-to-face or online, work to enable students to learn productive habits in pre-writing, drafting, revising, and editing. To schedule an appointment, please refer to their webpage, Writing Center, or contact:

Doug Enders
Writing Center Director & Professor of English
Gregory 205
540-665-4845 |

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