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APA, MLA, Chicago/Turbian, AMA - Citation Styles: Chicago/Turbian

This resource guide was designed to provide you with assistance in citing your sources when writing an academic paper.There are different styles which format the information differently.

Chicago is a documentation syle that has been published by the Chicago University Press since 1906. This citation style incorporates rules of grammar and punctuation common in American English. Typically, Chicago Style presents two basic documentation systems: (1) notes and bibliography and (2) author-date. Choosing between the two often depends on subject matter and the nature of sources cited, as each system is favored by different groups of scholars.

A MANUAL FOR WRITERS OF RESEARCH PAPERS—also known as “Turabian”—is an introduction to Chicago-style formatting and citation generation, the manual aids students in clear writing, citing, and research practice. 

The primary difference is that Turabian is shorter and contains fewer instructions, and that it does not contain information about publication. The Chicago Manual of Style is designed for professionals in the field who are publishing, and has a great deal of instruction on formating and many other things. Turabian is a pared-down version designed for students writing research papers.

Notes and Bibliography: Sample Citations

These examples are taken directly from Chicago Manual of Style: Turabian Manual of Style, CITATION QUICK GUIDE.

The following examples illustrate the notes and bibliography style. Sample notes show full citations followed by shortened forms that would be used after the first citation. Sample bibliography entries follow the notes.

 

BOOK

NOTES

1. Katie Kitamura, A Separation (New York: Riverhead Books, 2017), 25.

2. Sharon Sassler and Amanda Jayne Miller, Cohabitation Nation: Gender, Class, and the Remaking of Relationships (Oakland: University of California Press, 2017), 114.

SHORTENED NOTES

3. Kitamura, Separation, 91–92.

4. Sassler and Miller, Cohabitation Nation, 205.

BIBLIOGRAPHY ENTRIES (IN ALPHABETICAL ORDER)

Kitamura, Katie. A Separation. New York: Riverhead Books, 2017.

Sassler, Sharon, and Amanda Jayne Miller. Cohabitation Nation: Gender, Class, and the Remaking of Relationships. Oakland: University of California Press, 2017.

 

CHAPTER OR OTHER PART OF AN EDITED BOOK

In a note, cite specific pages. In the bibliography, include the page range for the chapter or part.

NOTE

1. Mary Rowlandson, “The Narrative of My Captivity,” in The Making of the American Essay, ed. John D’Agata (Minneapolis: Graywolf Press, 2016), 19–20.

SHORTENED NOTE

2. Rowlandson, “Captivity,” 48.

BIBLIOGRAPHY ENTRY

Rowlandson, Mary. “The Narrative of My Captivity.” In The Making of the American Essay, edited by John D’Agata, 19–56. Minneapolis: Graywolf Press, 2016.

 

To cite an edited book as a whole, list the editor(s) first.

NOTE

1. John D’Agata, ed., The Making of the American Essay (Minneapolis: Graywolf Press, 2016), 19–20.

SHORTENED NOTE

2. D’Agata, American Essay, 48.

BIBLIOGRAPHY ENTRY

D’Agata, John, ed. The Making of the American Essay. Minneapolis: Graywolf Press, 2016.

 

TRANSLATED BOOK

NOTE

1. Jhumpa Lahiri, In Other Words, trans. Ann Goldstein (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2016), 146.

SHORTENED NOTE

2. Lahiri, In Other Words, 184.

BIBLIOGRAPHY ENTRY

Lahiri, Jhumpa. In Other Words. Translated by Ann Goldstein. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2016.

 

E-BOOK

For books consulted online, include a URL or the name of the database. For other types of e-books, name the format. If no fixed page numbers are available, cite a section title or a chapter or other number in the notes or, if possible, track down a version with fixed page numbers.

NOTES

1. Fyodor Dostoevsky, Crime and Punishment, trans. Constance Garnett, ed. William Allan Neilson (New York: P. F. Collier & Son, 1917), 444, https://archive.org/details/crimepunishment00dostuoft.

2. Eric Schlosser, Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the American Meal(Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2001), 88, ProQuest Ebrary.

3. Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice (New York: Penguin Classics, 2007), chap. 3, Kindle.

SHORTENED NOTES

4. Dostoevsky, Crime and Punishment, 504–5.

5. Schlosser, Fast Food Nation, 100.

6. Austen, Pride and Prejudice, chap. 14.

BIBLIOGRAPHY ENTRIES (IN ALPHABETICAL ORDER)

Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice. New York: Penguin Classics, 2007. Kindle.

Dostoevsky, Fyodor. Crime and Punishment. Translated by Constance Garnett, edited by William Allan Neilson. New York: P. F. Collier & Son, 1917. https://archive.org/details/crimepunishment00dostuoft.

Schlosser, Eric. Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the American Meal. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2001. ProQuest Ebrary.

 

THESIS OR DISSERTATION

NOTE

1. Guadalupe Navarro-Garcia, “Integrating Social Justice Values in Educational Leadership: A Study of African American and Black University Presidents” (PhD diss., University of California, Los Angeles, 2016), 44, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global.

SHORTENED NOTE

2. Navarro-Garcia, “Social Justice Values,” 125–26.

BIBLIOGRAPHY ENTRY

Navarro-Garcia, Guadalupe. “Integrating Social Justice Values in Educational Leadership: A Study of African American and Black University Presidents.” PhD diss., University of California, Los Angeles, 2016. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global.

 

JOURNAL ARTICLE

In a note, cite specific page numbers. In the bibliography, include the page range for the whole article. For articles consulted online, include a URL or the name of the database. Many journal articles list a DOI (Digital Object Identifier). A DOI forms a permanent URL that begins https://doi.org/. This URL is preferable to the URL that appears in your browser’s address bar.

NOTES

1. Ashley Hope Pérez, “Material Morality and the Logic of Degrees in Diderot’s Le neveu de Rameau,” Modern Philology 114, no. 4 (May 2017): 874, https://doi.org/10.1086/689836.

2. Shao-Hsun Keng, Chun-Hung Lin, and Peter F. Orazem, “Expanding College Access in Taiwan, 1978–2014: Effects on Graduate Quality and Income Inequality,” Journal of Human Capital 11, no. 1 (Spring 2017): 9–10, https://doi.org/10.1086/690235.

3. Peter LaSalle, “Conundrum: A Story about Reading,” New England Review 38, no. 1 (2017): 95, Project MUSE.

SHORTENED NOTES

4. Pérez, “Material Morality,” 880–81.

5. Keng, Lin, and Orazem, “Expanding College Access,” 23.

6. LaSalle, “Conundrum,” 101.

BIBLIOGRAPHY ENTRIES (IN ALPHABETICAL ORDER)

Keng, Shao-Hsun, Chun-Hung Lin, and Peter F. Orazem. “Expanding College Access in Taiwan, 1978–2014: Effects on Graduate Quality and Income Inequality.” Journal of Human Capital 11, no. 1 (Spring 2017): 1–34. https://doi.org/10.1086/690235.

LaSalle, Peter. “Conundrum: A Story about Reading.” New England Review38, no. 1 (2017): 95–109. Project MUSE.

Pérez, Ashley Hope. “Material Morality and the Logic of Degrees in Diderot’s Le neveu de Rameau.” Modern Philology 114, no. 4 (May 2017): 872–98. https://doi.org/10.1086/689836.

 

Journal articles often list many authors, especially in the sciences. If there are four or more authors, list up to ten in the bibliography; in a note, list only the first, followed by et al. (“and others”). For more than ten authors (not shown here), list the first seven in the bibliography, followed by et al.

NOTE

7. Jesse N. Weber et al., “Resist Globally, Infect Locally: A Transcontinental Test of Adaptation by Stickleback and Their Tapeworm Parasite,” American Naturalist 189, no. 1 (January 2017): 45, https://doi.org/10.1086/689597.

SHORTENED NOTE

8. Weber et al., “Resist Globally,” 48–49.

BIBLIOGRAPHY ENTRY

Weber, Jesse N., Martin Kalbe, Kum Chuan Shim, Noémie I. Erin, Natalie C. Steinel, Lei Ma, and Daniel I. Bolnick. “Resist Globally, Infect Locally: A Transcontinental Test of Adaptation by Stickleback and Their Tapeworm Parasite.” American Naturalist 189, no. 1 (January 2017): 43–57. https://doi.org/10.1086/689597.

 

NEWS OR MAGAZINE ARTICLE

Articles from newspapers or news sites, magazines, blogs, and the like are cited similarly. Page numbers, if any, can be cited in a note but are omitted from a bibliography entry. If you consulted the article online, include a URL or the name of the database.

NOTES

1. Farhad Manjoo, “Snap Makes a Bet on the Cultural Supremacy of the Camera,” New York Times, March 8, 2017, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/08/technology/snap-makes-a-bet-on-the-cultural-supremacy-of-the-camera.html.

2. Erin Anderssen, “Through the Eyes of Generation Z,” Globe and Mail(Toronto), June 25, 2016, http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/through-the-eyes-of-generation-z/article30571914/.

3. Rob Pegoraro, “Apple’s iPhone Is Sleek, Smart and Simple,” Washington Post, July 5, 2007, LexisNexis Academic.

4. Vinson Cunningham, “You Don’t Understand: John McWhorter Makes His Case for Black English,” New Yorker, May 15, 2017, 85.

5. Dara Lind, “Moving to Canada, Explained,” Vox, September 15, 2016, http://www.vox.com/2016/5/9/11608830/move-to-canada-how.

SHORTENED NOTES

6. Manjoo, “Snap.”

7. Anderssen, “Generation Z.”

8. Pegoraro, “Apple’s iPhone.”

9. Cunningham, “Black English,” 86.

10. Lind, “Moving to Canada.”

BIBLIOGRAPHY ENTRIES (IN ALPHABETICAL ORDER)

Anderssen, Erin. “Through the Eyes of Generation Z.” Globe and Mail(Toronto), June 25, 2016. http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/through-the-eyes-of-generation-z/article30571914/.

Cunningham, Vinson. “You Don’t Understand: John McWhorter Makes His Case for Black English.” New Yorker, May 15, 2017.

Lind, Dara. “Moving to Canada, Explained.” Vox, September 15, 2016. http://www.vox.com/2016/5/9/11608830/move-to-canada-how.

Manjoo, Farhad. “Snap Makes a Bet on the Cultural Supremacy of the Camera.” New York Times, March 8, 2017. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/08/technology/snap-makes-a-bet-on-the-cultural-supremacy-of-the-camera.html.

Pegoraro, Rob. “Apple’s iPhone Is Sleek, Smart and Simple.” Washington Post, July 5, 2007. LexisNexis Academic.

 

Readers’ comments are cited in the text or in a note but omitted from a bibliography.

NOTE

11. Eduardo B (Los Angeles), March 9, 2017, comment on Manjoo, “Snap.”

 

BOOK REVIEW

NOTE

1. Fernanda Eberstadt, “Gone Guy: A Writer Leaves His Wife, Then Disappears in Greece,” review of A Separation, by Katie Kitamura, New York Times, February 15, 2017, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/02/15/books/review/separation-katie-kitamura.html.

SHORTENED NOTE

2. Eberstadt, “Gone Guy.”

BIBLIOGRAPHY ENTRY

Eberstadt, Fernanda. “Gone Guy: A Writer Leaves His Wife, Then Disappears in Greece.” Review of A Separation, by Katie Kitamura. New York Times, February 15, 2017. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/02/15/books/review/separation-katie-kitamura.html.