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APA, MLA, Chicago/Turbian, AMA - Citation Styles: MLA

This resource guide was designed to provide you with assistance in citing your sources when writing an academic paper.There are different styles which format the information differently.

 


A Quick Guide to 8th Edition Changes

From Marquette University Libraries

Parenthetical OR In-Text Citation

 

In general the In-Text or Parenthetical Citation will use the following format:  (author's last name page number)

Some variations:

  • Citations for complete works do not require page number.
  • If 2 authors have the same last name, precede the author's last name with his or her first initial.
  • If 2 works have the same author, add a comma after the author's last name followed by the title of the work and then the page number.
  • If a work has 2 or 3 author's include each of their last names separated by commas with the word "and" before the last name.
  • If the work has more than 3 author's, include the first author's last name followed by et al. and the page number.

Examples

Work Cited

Strunk, William and E.B. White. The Elements of Style. 3rd. ed. New York: Macmillan, 1979. 

In-Text Citation

If a manuscript is to be submitted for publication, leave plenty of space (Strunk 34).

OR

Strunk believes when submitting a manuscript  for publication you should leave plenty of space (34).

 

Work Cited

American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-IV. Washington, DC: 

     American Psychiatric Association, 1994. 

In-Text Citation

Moderate Mental Retardation is roughly equivalent to what used to be referred to as the education category of 

"trainable" (American Psychiatric Association 41).

OR

The American Psychiatric Association refers to Moderate Mental Retardation as "trainable" (41).

MLA Style (Print Sources)

Based on MLA Handbook of Writers of Research Papers 8th ed.

 

Always choose an easily readable typeface (Times New Roman is just one example) in which the regular type style contrasts clearly with the italic, and set it to a standard size, such as 12 points. Do not justify the lines of text at the right margin; turn off any automatic hyphenation feature in your writing program. Double-space the entire research paper, including quotations, notes, and the list of works cited. Indent the first line of a paragraph half an inch from the left margin. Indent set-off quotations half an inch as well (for examples, see 76–80 in the MLA Handbook). Leave one space after a period or other concluding punctuation mark, unless your instructor prefers two spaces.

 

Book - Single to Three Authors

Bernstein, Theodore. The Careful Writer: A Modern Guide to English Usage. New York: Atheneum, 1977. 

Strunk, William, and E.B. White. The Elements of Style. 3rd ed. New York: Macmillan, 1979. 

Baum, Andrew, Tracey A. Revenson, and Jerome E. Singer. Handbook of Health Psychology. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence

     Erlbaum, 2001. 

 

Book - More than Three Authors

Bull, Henry, et al. The Near East. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. 

 

Book - Corporate author

American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder: DSM-IV. Washington, DC:

     American Psychiatric Association, 1994. 

 

Book Chapter

Auerbach, Erich. "Scar of Odysseus." Mimesis: The Representation of Reality in Western Literature. Trans. 

     Willard R. Trask. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1953: 3-23. 

 

Encyclopedia Article

Brislin, Richard W. "Cross-Cultural Psychology." Encyclopedia of Psychology.  2nd ed. Ed. Raymond J. Corsini. 

     New York: Wiley, 1984. 

 

Reference Book Article

"Graham, Martha. "Who's Who of American Women. 13th ed. 1983-84. 

 

Journal Article

Lyon, George Ella. "Contemporary Appalachian Poetry: Sources and Directions." Kentucky Review  2.2 (1981):

     3-22. 

 

Magazine Article

Begley, Sharon. "A Healthy Dose of Laughter." Newsweek 4 Oct. 1982: 74-75. 

 

Newspaper Article

Collins, Glenn. "Single-Father Survey Finds Adjustment a Problem." New York Times 21 Nov. 1983, late ed.: B17. 

 

MLA Style (Electronic Sources)

Based on MLA Handbook of Writers of Research Papers 8th ed.

Always choose an easily readable typeface (Times New Roman is just one example) in which the regular type style contrasts clearly with the italic, and set it to a standard size, such as 12 points. Do not justify the lines of text at the right margin; turn off any automatic hyphenation feature in your writing program. Double-space the entire research paper, including quotations, notes, and the list of works cited. Indent the first line of a paragraph half an inch from the left margin. Indent set-off quotations half an inch as well (for examples, see 76–80 in the MLA Handbook). Leave one space after a period or other concluding punctuation mark, unless your instructor prefers two spaces.

See Citing Source Code in MLA

Book

Allen, Carolyn. Following Djuna: Women and the Erotics of Loss. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1996. Indiana

     University Press, 1996. EBSCOhost, suproxy.su.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?

     direct=true&AuthType=ip,url,cookie&db=nlebk&AN=636&site=ehost-live

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History. Oxford Press, 2009. Oxford Reference Online.

      www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780199532988.001.0001/acref-9780199532988>.

Encyclopedia Article

"Fresco Painting." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia, Encyclopaedia Britannica, Incorporated, 2006. ProQuest Ebook

     Central, www.ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/shenandoah-ebooks/detail.action?docID=361914.

Journal Article

Moon, Sung, Rebecca Hegar, and Jamie Page. "TANF Status, Ethnicity, and the Early School Success." Children &

     Youth Services Review, vol31 no. 8, 2009, pp. 854-863. ScienceDirect, doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2009.03.008.

Santí, Enrico Mario. "‘Fresa y Chocolate’: The Rhetoric of Cuban Reconciliation.” MLN, vol. 113, no. 2, 1998, pp. 407–

     425. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/3251482.

Web Site

Barrat, Vanessa X., and BethAnn Berliner. "Examining Independent Study High Schools in California."  U.S.

     Department of Education. June 2009, nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=REL2009074.

College of Arts and Sciences, U of Kentucky. "Modern Languages and Classical Languages, Literatures, and Cultures:

     Glossary of Rhetorical Terms." U of Kentucky, 3 Sept. 2019mcl.as.uky.edu/glossary-rhetorical-terms.

Government Document

United States. Federal Bureau of Investigation. "Bonnie and Clyde Redux: The Year of the Gangster, Part 2.The FBI,

     United States Department of Justice, archives.fbi.gov/archives/news/stories/2009/may/year-of-the-gangster-part-

     2/bonnieclyde_052709. Accessed 3 Sept. 2019.