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Style Guides: APA Examples of Text Citations

Examples of Text Citation

APA Style

Examples of Text Citation


One work by Single Author

in a recent study of reaction times (Smith 1983), results indicated that   [Author's name is not part os your text]

Professor Georgia Smith (1983) compared reaction times   [Author's name is part of your text]


One work by 2 or more Authors

Lapp and Flood (1999) found that post-treatment score   [Authors's names are part of your text]

When post-treatment and pre-treatment scores were compared (Lapp & Flood, 1999)   [Author's names are not part

      of your text]


One work by 3,4,or 5 Authors

Williams, Jones, Smith, Bradner and Torrington (1983) found that   [List all authors the first time.  Cite all authors in


Williams, et al. (1983) later reported that    [subsequent text references]


One work by 6 or More Authors

Kosslyn et al. (1992) described recent findings   [Cite only first author with et al. for first and subsequent citations. 

     Cite all authors in bibliography]


Corporate Authors

A report issued by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) in 1981   [provide full name the first time]

Finding of older studies were disputed by several government researcher (NIMH, 1981)  [Use acronym in subsequent text references]


Work with No author or Anonymous Author

In an earlier report on free child care ("Study Finds," 1982)  [title of article or chapter]

The study College Bound Seniors (1992) proved to be particularly useful   [title of book or periodical]


Two or More Works within Same Parentheses

Past research (Zachlin, 1978, 1992) demonstrated that  [two or more works by same author]

Several studies (Alcors, 1978; Mullaney, 1977; Talpers, 1992) indicated    [ two or more works by different authors; note alphabetical order of names]


Direct Quote

The researcher stated "our results are inconclusive" (Czapiewski * Ruby, 1978, p. 10).