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APA Style (Electronic Sources)

Based on Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed.


APA format requires that all references be double-spaced.  Insert one space after commas, colons, and semicolons,

and periods that separate parts of a reference citation.


Article from an Online Periodical with DOI Assigned

Forgionne, G., & Guo, Z. (2008). International supply chain coordination in the electric utility industry. European Journal

     of Operational Research, 196,  162-168. doi:10.1016.ejor.2008.03.041

Article from an Online Periodical with no DOI Assigned

Cascio, E.U. (2009). Maternal labor supply and the introduction of kindergartners into American public schools.

     Journal of Human Resources, 44(1), 140-170.

APA states that including database information in citations is not necessary because databases change over time (p.192).  If you would like to include database information in the citation then the above citation would be modified as follows:

Cascio, E.U. (2009). Maternal labor supply and the introduction of kindergartners into American public schools.

     Journal of Human Resources, 44(1), 140-170. Retrieved from


Article from an Online Periodical with no DOI Assigned

Hitti, M. (2006). U.S. Life expectancy hits record high: Babies born in 2003 have life expectancy of 77.6 years.

     WebMD Health News. Retrieved from


Document from private or professional organization

American Psychological Association. (2007). Diagnostic dilemma: Cognitive scores vary as much within test takers

     as between age groups, making one session training less valid. Retrieved from


Document available on university web site

Chou, L., McClintock, R., Moretti, F., & Nix, D.H. (1993). Technology and education: Choosing pasts and imagining

     educational futures. Retrieved from Columbia University, Institute for Learning Technologies website:


Government Report

Virginia Department of Education. (2008). The Virginia school report card. Retrieved from


ERIC document retrieved from the ERIC database

Connections: Adult learner and the evolving university. (1999, October 21-23). Proceeding of the Annual Alliance/ACE

     Conference, Saratoga Springs, NY. Retrieved from ERIC database. (ED442323)


Newspaper Article

Kane, J. (2009, January 15). Unhealthy economy affecting health care. Winchester Star. Retrieved from


Electronic Book

Hornblower, S., & Spawforth, A. (Eds.). (2003). The Oxford companion to classical civilization. Retrieved from


Chapter/Section of a Web document or Online Book Chapter

East India Company. (2007). In I.C.B. Dear & P. Kemp (Eds.), The Oxford companion to ships and the sea (pp. 18-26).

     Retrieved from

Gloystein, D.M., Gillespie, M.J., & Schenck, R.C. (2003). The effects of medications in sports injuries. In J.C. DeLee &

     D.Drez, Delee and Drez's orthopaedic sports medicine (2nd ed.). Retrieved from


Dissertation/Thesis from an institutional database

Young, P.W. (2008). Women engineers within an organization: "Glass ceiling" issues (Master's thesis). Retrieved from



Dissertation/Thesis from the web

Eader, N.D. (2009). Family practices and perceived importance of healthy lifestyle behaviors in parents as adolescents

     (Masters thesis, The Ohio State University). Retrieved from


Online Encyclopedias and Dictionaries

Zug, G.R. (2009). Frogs. In Encyclopedia Britannica online. Retrieved from


Graphic Data (e.g. Interactive Maps and Other Graphic Representations

Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2006). Graph of children with asthma by race, ethnicity, and sex 2001-2004.

     Quick Stats: Percentage* of children aged <18 years with current asthma, by race/ethnicity and sex ---United

     States, 2001-2004. Retrieved from


Qualitative Data and Online Interview - Recording Available

Smith, H. (1941). Interview by J.H. Faulk [Interview audio file]. Voice From the Days of Slavery. Library of Congress

     American Memory Collection, Washington, DC. Retrieved from



E-mails are not included in the list of references, though you parenthetically cite them in you main text: (R. Green,

     personal communication, January 15, 2009).


Online Forum or Discussion Board Posting

Include title of message and the URL for the newsgroup or discussion board. Note that titles for items in online communities (e.g. blogs, newsgroup, forums) are not italicized. If the author's name is not available use the screen name. Use such things as post or message numbers. If available, provide the URL where the message is archived.

Hardesty, L. (2009, January 13). ROI budgeting [Online forum comment]. Retrieved from http;//



Blog (Weblog) and Video Blog Post

Boule, M. (2009, March 31). Teaching a dog a new trick [Web log post]. Retrieved from


Kanookle. (2009, January 15). The crash/emergency landing from my point of view. [Video file]. Retrieved from



Robert F. Kennedy assassination. (January 16, 2009). Retrieved from Wikipedia website:



Audio Podcast

Phillips, T. (Ed.). (2005, June 9). Winter wonder rocket movie [Audio File]. Science@ NASA Podcast. Retrieved from


Video Podcast

FAFSA made easy video archive (Who is eligible?) [Video file]. Adventures in Education. Retrieved from