APA Style (Print Sources)
Based on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed.
APA format requires that all references be double-spaced. Insert one space after commas, colons, and semicolons, and periods that separate parts of a reference citation.
Book - Single Author or Two Authors
Berstein, T.M. (1965). The careful writer: A modern guide to English usage. New York, NY: Antheneum.
Strunk, W., Jr., & White, E.B. (1979). The elements of style. (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Macmillan.
Book - Two to Seven Authors
Choksy, L., Abramson, R., Gillespie, A., Woods, D., & York, F. (2006). Teaching music in the twenty-first century (2nd ed.). Upper
Saddle River, NY: Prentice Hall.
Book - Eight or More Authors
Bulliet, R., Crossley, P., Headrick, D., Hirsch, S., Johnson, L., Northrup, D., ...Thomas, D. (2005). The earth and its people.
(3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
Book - Corporate Author
American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-IV (4th ed.). Washington, DC:
American Psychiatric Association.
Article or Chapter from a Book
Hartley, J.T., Harker, J.O., & Walsh, D.A. (1980). Contemporary issues and new directions in adult development of learning and
memory. In P.W. Poon (Ed.), Aging in the 1980's: Psychological issues (pp. 239-252). Washington, DC: American Psychological
Brislin, R.W. (1984). Cross-cultural psychology. In R.J. Corsini (Ed.), Encyclopedia of psychology (Vol.1, pp. 319-327). New York,
Journal Article (Pagination by Volume)
Piavo, A. (1975). Perceptual comparison through the mind's eye. Memory & Cognition, 3, 635-647.
Journal Article (Pagination by Issue)
Becker, L.J., & Seligman, C. (1981). Welcome to the energy crisis. Journal of Social Issues, 37(2), 25-29.
Nash, J.M. (1999, June 21). The case for global warming heats up. Time, 153, 62.
Lubin, J.S. (1980, December 5). On idle: The unemployed shun much mundane work. Wall Street Journal, pp. 1, 25.
Unpublished Dissertation or Theses
Lahman, T.D. (2001). A descriptive study to determine the frequency of tobacco, alcohol, and drug use among junior and senior high
school students (Unpublished master's thesis). Shenandoah University, Winchester, VA.
Doctoral Dissertation, abstracted in Dissertation Abstract
McKinney, D.L. (2006). Interpreting the organ works of Hugo Distler (Master's thesis). Available from ProQuest Dissertation and
Theses database. (UMI No. 3206909)
Gottfredson, L.S. (1980). How valid are occupation reinforce pattern scores? Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University, Center
for Social Organization of Schools. (ED182465)
Reyhner, J., Canton, G., St. Clair, R.N., & Yazzie, E.P. (1988, May). Revitalizing indigenous languages. Paper presented at the
Annual Stabilizing Indigenous Languages symposium, Louisville, KY. (ED428922)